SCREENING METHODS: Application methods(2)

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Application methods(2)

Additive effects occur when the antimicrobial activity of a compound is neither enhanced nor reduced while in the presence of another agent. The second occurrence can be synergistic i.e. the effect observed with a combination is greater than the sum of the effects observed with the two agents independently. Synergism refers to an enhancement of overall antimicrobial activity of a compound when in the presence of a second antimicrobial agent.

Finally, one may have antagonism between the pair. Antagonism occurs when the antimicrobial activity of one compound is reduced in the presence of a second agent. According to Krogstad and Moellering (1986), synergistic interactions are generally due to sequential inhibition of a common biochemical pathway e.g., use of compounds which inhibit enzyme that interactive antimicrobials, combinations of cell wall active agent, and use of cell wall active compounds to increase uptake of other compounds. The mechanisms for antagonism are much more complex and less well studied. Examples of causes for antagonism are combinations of bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents, use of agents with same active site (e.g., the 50S submit of the ribosome), and a chemical interaction (direct or indirect) between two agents (Krogstsad and Moellering, 1986).

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