SCREENING METHODS: In situ antifungal activity

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Dose relationships and mechanistic studies are some of the classical examples. However, the challenges with in vivo animal studies are also many, including what dose, route and for how long? Extrapolation of data from animals to humans and vice versa is difficult.

Electron microscope has played an important role for visual inspection of fungal pathogens.

Using the electron microscopy techniques the effects of potential antifungal extracts from natural sources can also be evaluated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allows visualizing morphological changes at the membrane and cell wall ultra structure. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) can give us a perspective at a molecular level to understand each antimicrobial compound mechanism of action. Moreover, other complementary microscopy techniques can be used to analyze the characteristic properties of each drug. With the invention of confocal microscopy, an overall picture of the entire cell condition can be possible. Also it is promising to assess the kinetics of the antimicrobials effect on fungal cultures and monitor cell agglutination and other population behaviors.

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