SCREENING METHODS: Specific recommendations

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Specific recommendations

The choice of test organisms depends on the specific purpose of the investigation. In a primary screening, drug-sensitive reference strains are preferably used and should represent common pathogenic species of different classes. Various combinations are possible, but the panel should at least consist of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterium. It has been well-established that Gram-positive bacteria are much more sensitive to drug action than Gram-negative bacteria, which is reflected by a higher number of random ‘hits’ during a screening campaign.

Extracts with prominent activity against Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods should preferentially also be tested against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) respectively as these organisms are medically important with concern to antibiotic resistance. ATCC and MTCC strains are well characterized and very popular for that purpose, but clinical field isolates may also be used if fully characterized by antibiogram. Another challenging new area in the microbiological world is biofilms (Mah and O’Toole, 2001).

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

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