SCREENING METHODS: Specific recommendations

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The choice of test organisms depends on the specific purpose of the investigation. In a primary screening, drug-sensitive reference strains are preferably used and should represent common pathogenic species of different classes. Various combinations are possible, but the panel should at least consist of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterium. It has been well-established that Gram-positive […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Poison food technique

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Generally antifungal activity is determined by poisoned food technique (Nene and Thapliyal, 2000, Kiran et al., 2010). Five-day old fungal culture is punched aseptically with a sterile cork borer of generally 6mm diameter. The fungal discs are then put on the gelled agar plate. The agar plates have been prepared by impregnating desired concentration of […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Antifungal assays(3)

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Antisporulation activity can be assessed by using scanning electron microscopy (Inouye et al, 1998), while effects on conidium germination can be evaluated by exposing the conidia to the test substance and subsequently counting the number of conidia with germ tubes equal to 1-1.5 times conidium length (Antonov et al, 1997). Additional observations of germinated conidia […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Antifungal assays(2)

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A well is then bored in the centre of the agar and test substance added to the well, or the test substance is added to a paper disk and the disk placed in the centre of the agar. (The specific agar to be used, and temperature and time of incubation, will be determined by the […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Antifungal assays(1)

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Antifungal assays are regularly used to determine whether plants extracts will have potential to treat human fungal infections (e.g. Tinea) or have use in agricultural/horticultural applications. In general these assays are quick, low cost, and do not involve access to specialized equipments. Activity of plant extracts against the yeast Candida is typically assessed using the […]

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SCREENING METHODS: TLC-Bioautography

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While the methods above are used to test whole extracts or extracts fractionated at another time there is an increasing interest in bioassay guided fractionation, where the separation of extracts into fractions is completed simultaneously with identification of bioactivity. In this method, TLC is performed using crude extracts, extract fractions, or whole essential oils. The […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Checkerboard method

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In other words, the concentration of a given compound needed to inhibit growth is given a value of 1, and the amount of the compound needed to inhibit growth when combined with another antimicrobial agent at a given concentration is expressed as a fraction. Most researchers add FICs for individual agents in a combination to […]

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