SCREENING METHODS: Application methods(3)

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Perhaps the most misused of the above term is synergism. This term has been used to describe relationships between agents without regard to the overall concentration of antimicrobial in combination. In other words, increased antimicrobial activity in a combination which contains 100 mM of compound A and 100 mM of A or B alone and […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Application methods(2)

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Additive effects occur when the antimicrobial activity of a compound is neither enhanced nor reduced while in the presence of another agent. The second occurrence can be synergistic i.e. the effect observed with a combination is greater than the sum of the effects observed with the two agents independently. Synergism refers to an enhancement of […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Application methods(1)

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While in vitro tests can give a good deal of information antimicrobial performance, they cannot necessarily duplicate all the variability which might exist in a plant. Therefore, once it has been determined that the antimicrobial performs well in an in vitro situation, it should be applied to in vivo system. Without the screening method data, […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Inhibition or Time killing curve(3)

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Screening methods should be used together, one endpoint and one descriptive test. The endpoint test helps to determine the approximate effective concentration, and the descriptive test evaluates the effect of a compound on growth over time. Several factors may affect the suitability of these methods for use with plant extracts. These factors include the type […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Inhibition or Time killing curve(2)

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Plate-5a shows some of possible situations one might encounter in running this type of test. First (A) is growth level suppression. This is sometimes used with a term called ‘percentage growth inhibition’ which may be misleading because it is a function of time. Second (B) is a lag phase increase. Third (C) is a decrease […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Inhibition or Time killing curve(1)

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An erroneous interpretation of ‘lethality’ could result (Davidson and Parish, 1989). There have been many publications using this method to study the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants, spices, and their essential oils including Shelef et al. (1984), Meena et al. (1986), Syed et al. (1986a, 1986b), Ismaiel and Pierson (1990), Kanemaru and Miyamoto (1990), Rajashekhara […]

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SCREENING METHODS: Descriptive screening methods

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While endpoint methods are excellent for screening compounds, they give less information concerning the effect of the compound on dynamic growth of microorganisms. Once the information has been determined about the MIC for the microorganism, it is important to look at the microorganism’s growth over time. There are several possible methods for evaluating the effect […]

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